Terms - A-J | K-Z | Parts of Books
Accordian Fold A book made by folding a sheet(s) of paper back and forth in a zig-zag. Typically each panel is the same size though variations can include panels of different sizes. Also called concertina.
Awl A wood-handled tool that makes holes for book binding.
Binding The method in which the pages of a book are held together, be it sewn, folded or glued.
Bone folder A flat hand held tool used extensively in book binding to score, fold, mold and crease papers. Typically one end is pointed and the other rounded
Bookboard Pressed acid-free cardboard used to make hard covers for books, book boxes
and slip cases. Also called binder's board.
Book block Also called text block is the group or stack of text papers, sewn or glued together that form the interior pages of a book.
Book cloth Woven fabrics, often paper-backed, used in covering books and slip cases. The backing prevents adhesives from bleeding through to the cloth front.
Book cover A range of protective coverings that are used to bind together the pages of a book.
Codex A book in the format used for modern books whereby numerous pages grouped into signatures are sewn together and given a cover.
Concertina An accordian fold book that can be combined with additional concertinas or page structures to make a more complex book structure.
Crossgrain The opposite direction of the grain in paper, making it more difficult to fold or tear smoothly on the cross grain.
Edition Making more than one copy of the same book. The books in an edition are usually signed and numbered.
End papers Colored or decorative paper used on the inside front and back covers to hide the inside edges of the book covers. They can also be used to attach a book's text block to the covers.
Flag Book Using a concertina spine, rectangular panels are adhered to the concertina pages. The panels are glued alternately on the right and then left side of the concertina. When opened the pages flutter and move.
Grainline The direction that fibers of machine-made papers and bookboard run. It is easier to fold with the grain of the paper than against it.
Jacobs Ladder: Is an age-old children’s toy. This structure lends itself to a moveable book format. It has a series of two sided panels, attached together by ribbons, where text and/or images can occupy, a front and back cover, and accordion folds to close.
Japanese Stab Binding A decorative stitching pattern, sewn near the spine edge, that binds
together the text pages and covers of a book. The covers can be either soft or hard (covered board). Stab bindings are especially useful for binding single sheets of paper together.
Piano Hinge Originally developed by Hedi Kyle this binding mechanism uses rods or skewers to attach the pages of the book together. The spine side of each page must be rolled and slit to create the female part of the hinge.
Pop-up Making cuts into a piece of paper and folding in such a way that when opened they become three dimensional. This can also be accomplished using separate papers attached and folded into the base page so that they move when opened.
PVA Polyvinyl acetate is a fast-drying white glue found in a variety of grades from children's glues to refined craft glues. It dries clear and stays flexible, but is not reversible.
Score To indent a line in the fibers of paper so that it can be folded more easily. This is usually done with the pointed edge of the bone folder.
Scroll A roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written, drawn or painted upon. One or two rods are attached at the ends of the long sheet to roll onto.
Sewing cradle A device that makes it easier to poke sewing holes in the gutter or spine of the text pages.
Starch paste A low tack adhesive used in book making using a mixture of cornstarch or rice
flour and water. It is a reversible adhesive and thus archival.
Tip-in Adding a piece of paper or material (ie. photograph, map, illustration) to a book by adhering it only at the top edge to the book page.
Tunnel book Pages of a tunnel book have cutouts, that allow the reader to look through the holes to the subsequent pages all the way to the back of the book. It is bound with two concertina spines placed on opposite sides of the book. Pages are attached to both concertinas.

Parts of books ToTop
Colophon A brief description usually located at the end of a book, describing production notes relevant to the edition. Colophons are commonly found in early printed books and in modern private press editions.
Fore edge The side of the book that opens, located opposite the spine.
Gutter Inner margins of book: the blank space formed by the inner margins of two facing
pages of a book
Head The top edge of a book.
Signature A group or gathering of folded pages that lay, one inside the other, becoming the
pages of a book.
Spine The side of the book where the pages are bound together; also the part that shows
when the book is closed and on a shelf.
Tail The bottom edge of a book